The Moldova-Ukraine State Border is 1,222 km long, consisting of 955 km of green border and 267 km of blue border. There are 53 official border crossing points along the Ukraine border, including international, inter-state and local ones. At the Moldova-Ukraine border, a section of 472 km is under control of the so-called Transnistrian authorities, including 25 official crossing points (5 international, 8 inter-state and 12 local). There is an internal / administrative “boundary” between the Eastern regions of the Republic of Moldova and Republic of Moldova proper (which is basically the Dniester River) where 14 Internal Customs Control Posts have been established. Moldovan border guards do not control this “internal boundary”.
In June 2005 the Presidents of Moldova and Ukraine sent a joint letter to the EU requesting assistance for enhanced border management capacities, including the development of an international standard of border and customs control at the Moldova/Ukraine state border. The EU responded positively to this request and an EU Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine was set-up which is based on a Memorandum of Understanding dated 7 October 2005 and signed between the European Commission, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine.
UNDP is the European Commission’s implementing partner in this endeavor. EUBAM’s mandate is, amongst others, to build up appropriate operational and institutional capacity in Moldova and Ukraine to ensure effective border and customs controls and surveillance as well as effective fight against criminal cross-border activities and organized crime in relevant inland areas and locations with particular attention to the Moldovan-Ukrainian state border. The Moldovan-Ukrainian border appeared only after 1991 and its clear demarcation is not completed yet. Due to fact clearly define state border is main element of the internal security EUBAM is seeking to make a contribution to support successful work of the Joint Ukrainian-Moldovan Border Demarcation Commission (JUMBDC) who is dealing with demarcation of the MD-UA state border since 2002.
On August 24, 1991, the Parliament of Ukraine expressed the will of people and declared Ukraine an independent state. Independence of the Republic of Moldova was declared on August, 27, 1991. The borders separating Moldova and Ukraine, all of which were Soviet republics before 1991, follow former Soviet largely administrative divisions. During 1995 – 1999 delimitation of the state border between UA and MD has been done, upon results of which the border line has been determined.
There is series of trans-boundary environmental disagreements involved Ukraine and Moldova, both of which encountered transportation problems created by the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Moldova lost access to the Black Sea through navigable waterways because the Danube was on Ukrainian territory, its closest point, the mouth of the Prut, being several hundred meters from the Ukraine – Moldova border. Ukraine lost access by land to its town of Reni except across Moldovan territory. In 1993 Moldova claimed a 1.5 km strip of Ukrainian land along the Danube. According to a settlement reached in 199 8, Ukraine gave up a 430 meters strip of land near the village of Giurgiulesti and 150 hectares of land next to Basarabeasca railway station as well as some other property. According to the same 1998 agreement on exchange of land, Moldova gave Ukraine control over a 7.7 km stretch of secondary road linking Izmail to Reni.
The demarcation of the state border is still underway in compliance with the Agreement between Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova on state borderline of August 18, 1999, which was ratified by the Verkhovna Rada on April 6, 2000. Moldovan – Ukrainian border cover 1.222 km. At the present there are 5-6 disputable sectors on the Northern and Southern part of Moldovan-Ukrainian border and the Transnistrian segment where demarcation of the state border has not been completed. The Joint Ukrainian-Moldovan Border Demarcation Commission (JUMBDC) was set up, it is meeting since 2002 and working on demarcation of the Moldovan-Ukrainian state border.
In 2010, basing on the request of Partner Services, EUBAM deployed a short-term expert (STE) on border demarcation. The border demarcation of the Central segment of the UA-MD border with length of 452 km, was started in July 2010. Upon STE coordination and direct participation, assistance and monitoring was demarcated approximately 112 km of the border at the Central segment by the end of the season of field works. STE provided substantial recommendations for future work, which have been mostly implemented.
Paper and electronic versions of the satellite maps of the Central segment of the UA-MD border, requested by the JUMCBD and prepared by the EU Satellite Centre, were provided to the Moldovan and Ukrainian delegations by EUBAM in January 2011. Demarcation works will continue in 2011 and could be concluded in 2012. EUBAM was requested to deploy a short term expert for supporting partner services in demarcation works for coming year.